Yorkshire Chess History
Henry Stevens Shallcross
Henry S Shallcross of Sheffield is listed as attending the West Yorkshire Chess Association meeting of 1875, in Sheffield. “Shallcross” was a member of the Sheffield Athenaeum Chess Club from 1850 to at least 1875, when records cease. The two are assumed to be the same person, though the Athenaeum member could conceivably have been a different member of the family.
Henry Shallcross’s parents were baker and corn-dealer George Shallcross (born 1796, at Bradfield, near Sheffield) and his wife Elizabeth (born c. 1806/07, at Sheffield). The couple had at least three children:
The father, George Shallcross, was described in Gell’s 1825 directory of Sheffield as a baker and corn dealer at 43 Gibraltar Street.
In White’s directory of 1833 Sheffield directory, George Shallcross was listed as a baker and corn and flour dealer, corn miller, and purveyor of oats for the army at 43 Gibraltar Street and Royds Mill.
An 1835 Sheffield poll book listed George Shallcross at Gibraltar Street.
The 1841 census listed the family of two parents and three children living at Gibraltar Street. George was recorded as miller and baker. A baker’s journeyman lived with them, as did two servants.
The death of the mother, Elizabeth Shallcross was registered in the first quarter of 1846, at Sheffield.
In Slater’s directory of 1847, George Shallcross is listed as a corn and flour dealer at 158 Gibraltar Street.
White’s General Directory of Sheffield, 1849, listed George Shallcross as a baker, corn, seed, and flour dealer, corn miller, and army contractor, at 158 Gibraltar Street, and a corn-miller at Royds Mill. His home was listed as 71 Prospect Terrace, Spital Hill, Sheffield.
In time George’s sons Henry Stevens Shallcross and John Shallcross started working in the family business.
An appropriate entry in the 1851 census is elusive.
In White’s 1852 directory of Sheffield George Shallcross, was listed as a corn, seed and flour dealer & army contractor, at 158 Gibraltar Street; h. 71 Prospect Terrace, Occupation Road . George was also listed as a councillor for St Philip’s ward.
Besides serving as a councillor, George Shallcross was apparently associated with Red Hill Sunday School.
In White’s directory of 1856, George is listed as a miller, baker, corn and flour dealer, at 158 Gibraltar Street, and at Sheaf Mill, Forge Lane; h. 71 Occupation Road.
The 1861 census listed the widowed George Shallcross living with sons Henry and John, and a servant, at 175 Western Bank, Sheffield, which was a much preferable to Gibraltar Street as a residential location. George was described as a miller and baker, Henry as a shopman and bookkeeper, and John a foreman of millers.
In F. White’s Sheffield directory of 1862 lists George Shallcross as a baker, flour dealer, and corn miller, at 158 Gibraltar Street, but his home now at 175 Western Bank.
At the time of the Sheffield Flood of 1864, George and his two sons were trading as George Shallcross and Sons at Russell Mills, Russell Street, Sheffield. They claimed £196 10s 10d as a result of the effects of the flood, and an award assessed by agreement at £160 was made by the Flood Commissioners on 30th January 1865.
George Shallcross died 15/09/1870, aged 74.
At some stage the family business became a partnership between the two brothers, though retaining the name of George Shallcross & Sons. This was presumably the consequence of the death of the death of the father.
The 1871 census found brother Henry and John, still both unmarried, living at 65 Montgomery Road, with one servant. They were both described as master millers, employing 10 men.
White’s 1879 directory of Sheffield lists the firm of G. Shallcross & Sons, corn millers and corn merchants of Russell Street. George is listed as a “manager” at 55-59 Wicker, while Henry Stevens Shallcross and John Shallcross are listed as members of the company, both resident at Park Lane. A possibly-unrelated Joseph Shallcross was listed as a fitter at 45 Arthur Street.
The marriage of Henry Stevens Shallcross to Hannah Lane (born from 1835 to 1838, Fishlake, Yorkshire, 3 miles north of Hatfield) was recorded in the fourth quarter of 1880, at Scarborough (!?). The 1871 census had listed Hannah as the cook in the household of Dr. George Goody of Silver Street, Thorne, not too far from Fishlake.
The 1881 census found 54-year-old Henry S Shallcross living at 54 Crescent Road, Sheffield, with his “43”-year-old wife Hannah Shallcross and one servant. He was described as a master miller, employing 12 other men.
The London Gazette of 17th August 1888 carried a notice announcing that the partnership between the two brothers was being amicably dissolved, due to the retirement from business of the older brother Henry, with effect from 13th August 1888, the business being thereafter conducted solely by John on his own account.
Within a year of retirement, on 07/06/1889, Henry Stevens Shallcross died.
The Sheffield Daily Telegraph of Saturday 08/06/1889 reported the death as follows:
His will was proved by Hannah Shallcross of Crescent Road, Sheffield.
White’s Sheffield directory of 1901 lists Mrs Hannah Shallcross at 5 Priory Terrace, showing she’d moved into what was a smaller property.
In time Hannah may have moved to Thorne, near her place of birth, as her death, aged 75, was registered in the third quarter of 1911 at Thorne.
“Shallcross” was a member of Sheffield Athenaeum Chess Club from 1850 to at least 1874 when available records cease, and was a member of the Sheffield Athenaeum Chess Club for more years probably than any other member during the club’s first thirty years or so.
He appears not to be listed as present at either the 1863 or 1868 West Yorkshire Chess Association meetings held in Sheffield, though “Henry S Shallcross” of Sheffield was listed as present at the 1875 WYCA meeting in Sheffield. From this we can fairly safely guess that the Athenaeum member was Henry Stevens Shallcross.
Copyright © 2013 Stephen John Mann
Census information is copyright of The National Archive, see UK Census Information